SOUTH CAROLINA

SCIENCE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

 

South Carolina Department of Education

Columbia, South Carolina

 

November 2005

 

 

HIGH SCHOOL

CORE AREA STANDARDS

Physical Science

Overview

 

The academic standards for Physical Science establish the scientific inquiry skills and core content for all Physical Science classes in South Carolina schools. The course should provide students with a conceptual understanding of the world around them—a basic knowledge of the physical universe that should serve as the foundation for other high school science courses.

 

Teachers, schools, and districts should use these standards to make decisions concerning the structure and content for Physical Science classes that are taught in their schools. These decisions will involve choices regarding additional content, activities, and learning strategies and will depend on the particular objectives of the individual classes. All Physical Science classes must include inquiry-based instruction, allowing students to engage in problem solving, decision making, critical thinking, and applied learning. In other words, students should spend more of their class time choosing the right method to solve a problem and less time solving problems that merely call for repetitive procedures.

 

Physical Science is a laboratory course (minimum of 30 percent hands-on investigation) that integrates principles of chemistry and physics. Physical science laboratories will need to be stocked with all of the materials and apparatuses necessary to complete investigations in both the chemistry and physics portions of the course.

 

The standards in the physical science core area will be the basis for the development of the items on the state-required end-of-course examination for Physical Science. The skills and tools listed in the scientific inquiry sections will be assessed independently from the content knowledge in the respective grade or high school core area under which they are listed. Moreover, scientific inquiry standards and indicators will be assessed cumulatively. Therefore, as students progress through the grade levels, they are responsible for the scientific inquiry indicators—including a knowledge of the use of tools—in all their earlier grades. A table of the scientific inquiry standards and indicators for kindergarten through grade twelve is provided in appendix A, which teachers are urged to print out and keep as a ready reference.

 

 Scientific Inquiry

 

The skills of scientific inquiry, including a knowledge of the use of tools, will be assessed cumulatively on statewide tests. Students will therefore be responsible for the scientific inquiry indicators from all of their earlier grade levels. A table of the K–12 scientific inquiry standards and indicators is provided in appendix A.

 

 

Standard PS-1:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of how scientific inquiry and technological design, including mathematical analysis, can be used appropriately to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

Indicators

 

PS-1.1    Generate hypotheses on the basis of credible, accurate, and relevant sources of scientific information.

PS-1.2    Use appropriate laboratory apparatuses, technology, and techniques safely and accurately when conducting a scientific investigation.

PS-1.3    Use scientific instruments to record measurement data in appropriate metric units that reflect the precision and accuracy of each particular instrument.

PS-1.4    Design a scientific investigation with appropriate methods of control to test a hypothesis (including independent and dependent variables), and evaluate the designs of sample investigations.

PS-1.5    Organize and interpret the data from a controlled scientific investigation by using mathematics (including formulas and dimensional analysis), graphs, models, and/or technology.

PS-1.6    Evaluate the results of a controlled scientific investigation in terms of whether they refute or verify the hypothesis.

PS-1.7    Evaluate a technological design or product on the basis of designated criteria (including cost, time, and materials).

PS-1.8    Compare the processes of scientific investigation and technological design.

PS-1.9    Use appropriate safety procedures when conducting investigations.

 

Chemistry: Structure and Properties of Matter

 

Standard PS-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and properties of atoms.

Indicators

 

PS-2.1    Compare the subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons) of an atom with regard to mass, location, and charge, and explain how these particles affect the properties of an atom (including identity, mass, volume, and reactivity).

PS-2.2    Illustrate the fact that the atoms of elements exist as stable or unstable isotopes.

PS-2.3    Explain the trends of the periodic table based on the elements’ valence electrons and atomic numbers.

PS-2.4    Use the atomic number and the mass number to calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and/or electrons for a given isotope of an element.

PS-2.5    Predict the charge that a representative element will acquire according to the arrangement of electrons in its outer energy level.

PS-2.6    Compare fission and fusion (including the basic processes and the fact that both fission and fusion convert a fraction of the mass of interacting particles into energy and release a great amount of energy).

PS-2.7    Explain the consequences that the use of nuclear applications (including medical technologies, nuclear power plants, and nuclear weapons) can have.

 

Chemistry: Structure and Properties of Matter

 

Standard PS-3:  The student will demonstrate an understanding of various properties and classifications of matter.

Indicators

 

PS-3.1    Distinguish chemical properties of matter (including reactivity) from physical properties of matter (including boiling point, freezing/melting point, density [with density calculations], solubility, viscosity, and conductivity).

PS-3.2    Infer the practical applications of organic and inorganic substances on the basis of their chemical and physical properties.

PS-3.3    Illustrate the difference between a molecule and an atom.

PS-3.4    Classify matter as a pure substance (either an element or a compound) or as a mixture (either homogeneous or heterogeneous) on the basis of its structure and/or composition.

PS-3.5    Explain the effects of temperature, particle size, and agitation on the rate at which a solid dissolves in a liquid.

PS-3.6    Compare the properties of the four states of matter—solid, liquid, gas, and plasma—in terms of the arrangement and movement of particles.

PS-3.7    Explain the processes of phase change in terms of temperature, heat transfer, and particle arrangement.

PS-3.8    Classify various solutions as acids or bases according to their physical properties, chemical properties (including neutralization and reaction with metals), generalized formulas, and pH (using pH meters, pH paper, and litmus paper).

 

Chemistry: Structure and Properties of Matter

 

Standard PS-4:  The student will demonstrate an understanding of chemical reactions and the classifications, structures, and properties of chemical compounds.

Indicators

 

PS-4.1    Explain the role of bonding in achieving chemical stability.

PS-4.2    Explain how the process of covalent bonding provides chemical stability through the sharing of electrons.

PS-4.3    Illustrate the fact that ions attract ions of opposite charge from all directions and form crystal lattices.

PS-4.4    Classify compounds as crystalline (containing ionic bonds) or molecular (containing covalent bonds) based on whether their outer electrons are transferred or shared.

PS-4.5    Predict the ratio by which the representative elements combine to form binary ionic compounds, and represent that ratio in a chemical formula.

PS-4.6    Distinguish between chemical changes (including the formation of gas or reactivity with acids) and physical changes (including changes in size, shape, color, and/or phase).

PS-4.7    Summarize characteristics of balanced chemical equations (including conservation of mass and changes in energy in the form of heat—that is, exothermic or endothermic reactions).

PS-4.8    Summarize evidence (including the evolution of gas; the formation of a precipitate; and/or changes in temperature, color, and/or odor) that a chemical reaction has occurred.

PS-4.9    Apply a procedure to balance equations for a simple synthesis or decomposition reaction.

PS-4.10  Recognize simple chemical equations (including single replacement and double replacement) as being balanced or not balanced.

PS-4.11  Explain the effects of temperature, concentration, surface area, and the presence of a catalyst on reaction rates.

 

Physics: The Interactions of Matter and Energy

 

Standard PS-5:  The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of forces and motion.

Indicators

 

PS-5.1    Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object.

PS-5.2    Use the formula v = d/t to solve problems related to average speed or velocity.

PS-5.3    Explain how changes in velocity and time affect the acceleration of an object.

PS-5.4    Use the formula a = (vf-vi)/t to determine the acceleration of an object.

PS-5.5    Explain how acceleration due to gravity affects the velocity of an object as it falls.

PS-5.6    Represent the linear motion of objects on distance-time graphs.

PS-5.7    Explain the motion of objects on the basis of Newton’s three laws of motion: inertia; the relationship among force, mass, and acceleration; and action and reaction forces.

PS-5.8    Use the formula F = ma to solve problems related to force.

PS-5.9    Explain the relationship between mass and weight by using the formula FW = mag.

PS-5.10  Explain how the gravitational force between two objects is affected by the mass of each object and the distance between them.

 

Physics: The Interactions of Matter and Energy

 

Standard PS-6:  The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature, conservation, and transformation of energy.

Indicators

 

PS-6.1    Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to the transformation of various forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, light energy, sound energy, and thermal energy).

PS-6.2    Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other.

PS-6.3    Explain work in terms of the relationship among the force applied to an object, the displacement of the object, and the energy transferred to the object.

PS-6.4    Use the formula W = Fd to solve problems related to work done on an object.

PS-6.5    Explain how objects can acquire a static electric charge through friction, induction, and conduction.

PS-6.6    Explain the relationships among voltage, resistance, and current in Ohm’s law.

PS-6.7    Use the formula V = IR to solve problems related to electric circuits.

PS-6.8    Represent an electric circuit by drawing a circuit diagram that includes the symbols for a resistor, switch, and voltage source.

PS-6.9    Compare the functioning of simple series and parallel electrical circuits.

PS-6.10  Compare alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) in terms of the production of electricity and the direction of current flow.

PS-6.11  Explain the relationship of magnetism to the movement of electric charges in electromagnets, simple motors, and generators.

 

Physics: The Interactions of Matter and Energy

 

Standard PS-7:  The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature and properties of mechanical and electromagnetic waves.

Indicators

 

PS-7.1    Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with matter (including transverse and longitudinal/compressional waves).

PS-7.2    Compare the nature and properties of transverse and longitudinal/compressional mechanical waves.

PS-7.3    Summarize characteristics of waves (including displacement, frequency, period, amplitude, wavelength, and velocity as well as the relationships among these characteristics).

PS-7.4    Use the formulas v = f  and v = d/t to solve problems related to the velocity of waves.

PS-7.5    Summarize the characteristics of the electromagnetic spectrum (including range of wavelengths, frequency, energy, and propagation without a medium).

PS-7.6    Summarize reflection and interference of both sound and light waves and the refraction and diffraction of light waves.

PS-7.7    Explain the Doppler effect conceptually in terms of the frequency of the waves and the pitch of the sound.

 

 

 

Biology

Overview

The biology standards provide students with a basic knowledge of living organisms and the interaction of these organisms with the natural world. The standards establish the scientific inquiry skills and core content for all biology courses in South Carolina schools. Biology courses should serve as the foundation for higher-level science courses and should give students the science skills necessary for life science–related technical careers.

 

Teachers, schools, and districts should use these standards to make decisions concerning the structure and content of Biology 1 and Applied Biology 1 and 2. Educators must also determine how all biology courses in their schools, as well as individual classes, may go beyond the standards. These decisions will involve choices regarding additional content, activities, and learning strategies and will depend on the objectives of the particular courses. All biology courses must include inquiry-based instruction, allowing students to engage in problem solving, decision making, critical thinking, and applied learning.

 

All biology courses are laboratory courses (minimum of 30 percent hands-on investigation). Biology laboratories will need to be stocked with all of the materials and apparatuses necessary to complete investigations.

 

The standards in the biology core area will be the basis for the development of the items on the state-required end-of-course examination for Biology 1 and Applied Biology 2. The skills and tools listed in the scientific inquiry sections will be assessed independently from the content knowledge in the respective grade or high school core area under which they are listed. Moreover, scientific inquiry standards and indicators will be assessed cumulatively. Therefore, as students progress through the grade levels, they are responsible for the scientific inquiry indicators—including a knowledge of the use of tools—in all their earlier grades. A table of the scientific inquiry standards and indicators for kindergarten through grade twelve is provided in appendix A, which teachers are urged to print out and keep as a ready reference.

 

Scientific Inquiry

 

 

The skills of scientific inquiry, including a knowledge of the use of tools, will be assessed cumulatively on statewide tests. Students will therefore be responsible for the scientific inquiry indicators from all of their earlier grade levels. A table of the K–12 scientific inquiry standards and indicators is provided in appendix A.

 

 

Standard B-1:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of how scientific inquiry and technological design, including mathematical analysis, can be used appropriately to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

Indicators

 

B-1.1    Generate hypotheses based on credible, accurate, and relevant sources of scientific information.

B-1.2    Use appropriate laboratory apparatuses, technology, and techniques safely and accurately when conducting a scientific investigation.

B-1.3    Use scientific instruments to record measurement data in appropriate metric units that reflect the precision and accuracy of each particular instrument. 

B-1.4    Design a scientific investigation with appropriate methods of control to test a hypothesis (including independent and dependent variables), and evaluate the designs of sample investigations.

B-1.5    Organize and interpret the data from a controlled scientific investigation by using mathematics, graphs, models, and/or technology.

B-1.6    Evaluate the results of a controlled scientific investigation in terms of whether they refute or verify the hypothesis.

B-1.7    Evaluate a technological design or product on the basis of designated criteria (including cost, time, and materials).

B-1.8    Compare the processes of scientific investigation and technological design.

B-1.9    Use appropriate safety procedures when conducting investigations.

 

Standard B-2:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of cells and their organelles.

Indicators

 

B-2.1   Recall the three major tenets of cell theory (all living things are composed of one or           more cells; cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things; and all presently existing cells arose from previously existing cells).

B-2.2    Summarize the structures and functions of organelles found in a eukaryotic cell (including the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes, vacuoles, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum [ER], Golgi apparatus, cilia, flagella, cell membrane, nuclear membrane, cell wall, and cytoplasm).

B-2.3    Compare the structures and organelles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

B-2.4    Explain the process of cell differentiation as the basis for the hierarchical organization of organisms (including cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems).

B-2.5    Explain how active, passive, and facilitated transport serve to maintain the homeostasis of the cell.

B-2.6    Summarize the characteristics of the cell cycle: interphase (called G1, S, G2); the phases of mitosis (called prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase); and plant and animal cytokinesis.

B-2.7    Summarize how cell regulation controls and coordinates cell growth and division and allows cells to respond to the environment, and recognize the consequences of uncontrolled cell division.

B-2.8    Explain the factors that affect the rates of biochemical reactions (including pH, temperature, and the role of enzymes as catalysts).

 

Standard B-3:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of the flow of energy within and between living systems.

Indicators

 

B-3.1   Summarize the overall process by which photosynthesis converts solar energy into chemical energy and interpret the chemical equation for the process.

B-3.2   Summarize the basic aerobic and anaerobic processes of cellular respiration and interpret the chemical equation for cellular respiration.

B-3.3   Recognize the overall structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—namely, adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups—and summarize its function (including the ATP-ADP [adenosine diphosphate] cycle).

B-3.4   Summarize how the structures of organic molecules (including proteins, carbohydrates, and fats) are related to their relative caloric values.

B-3.5   Summarize the functions of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in the human body.

B-3.6   Illustrate the flow of energy through ecosystems (including food chains, food webs, energy pyramids, number pyramids, and biomass pyramids).

 

Standard B-4:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of the molecular basis of heredity.

Indicators

 

B-4.1   Compare DNA and RNA in terms of structure, nucleotides, and base pairs.

B-4.2   Summarize the relationship among DNA, genes, and chromosomes.

B-4.3   Explain how DNA functions as the code of life and the blueprint for proteins.

B-4.4   Summarize the basic processes involved in protein synthesis (including transcription and translation).

B-4.5   Summarize the characteristics of the phases of meiosis I and II.

B-4.6   Predict inherited traits by using the principles of Mendelian genetics (including segregation, independent assortment, and dominance).

B-4.7   Summarize the chromosome theory of inheritance and relate that theory to Gregor Mendel’s principles of genetics.

B-4.8   Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes.

B-4.9   Exemplify ways that introduce new genetic characteristics into an organism or a population by applying the principles of modern genetics.

 

Standard B-5:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of biological evolution and the diversity of life.

Indicators

 

B-5.1    Summarize the process of natural selection.

B-5.2    Explain how genetic processes result in the continuity of life-forms over time.

B-5.3    Explain how diversity within a species increases the chances of its survival.

B-5.4    Explain how genetic variability and environmental factors lead to biological evolution.

B-5.5    Exemplify scientific evidence in the fields of anatomy, embryology, biochemistry, and paleontology that underlies the theory of biological evolution.

B-5.6    Summarize ways that scientists use data from a variety of sources to investigate and critically analyze aspects of evolutionary theory.

B-5.7    Use a phylogenetic tree to identify the evolutionary relationships among different groups of organisms.

 

 

Standard B-6:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships among organisms and the biotic and abiotic components of their environments.

Indicators

 

B-6.1    Explain how the interrelationships among organisms (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism) generate stability within ecosystems.

B-6.2    Explain how populations are affected by limiting factors (including density-dependent, density-independent, abiotic, and biotic factors).

B-6.3    Illustrate the processes of succession in ecosystems.

B-6.4    Exemplify the role of organisms in the geochemical cycles (including the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and water).

B-6.5    Explain how ecosystems maintain themselves through naturally occurring processes (including maintaining the quality of the atmosphere, generating soils, controlling the hydrologic cycle, disposing of wastes, and recycling nutrients).

B-6.6    Explain how human activities (including population growth, technology, and consumption of resources) affect the physical and chemical cycles and processes of Earth.

 

 

 

Chemistry

Overview

The standards for chemistry establish scientific inquiry skills and core content for all chemistry courses in South Carolina schools. In chemistry, students acquire a fundamental knowledge of the substances in our world—their composition, properties, and interactions—that should not only serve them as a foundation for the more advanced science courses in secondary and postsecondary education but should also provide them with the science skills that are necessary in chemistry-oriented technical careers.

 

In order for students to achieve these goals, chemistry courses must include inquiry-based instruction, allowing students to engage in problem solving, decision making, critical thinking, and applied learning. Teachers, schools, and districts should therefore use these standards to make decisions concerning the structure and content of all their courses in chemistry and to make choices regarding additional content, activities, and learning strategies that will be determined by the objectives of the particular courses.

 

All chemistry courses are laboratory courses (minimum of 30 percent hands-on investigation). Chemistry laboratories will need to be stocked with all of the materials and apparatuses necessary to complete investigations.

 

The skills and tools listed in the scientific inquiry sections have been assessed on statewide tests independently from the content knowledge in the respective grade or high school core area under which they are listed. Moreover, scientific inquiry standards and indicators have been assessed cumulatively. Therefore, as students progress through this course, they are expected to know the content of the scientific inquiry indicators—including the use of tools—from all their previous grades and science courses. A table of the scientific inquiry standards and indicators for kindergarten through grade twelve is provided in appendix A, which teachers are urged to print out and keep as a ready reference.

 

Scientific Inquiry

 

The skills of scientific inquiry, including a knowledge of the use of tools, will be assessed cumulatively on statewide tests. Students will therefore be responsible for the scientific inquiry indicators from all of their earlier grade levels. A table of the K–12 scientific inquiry standards and indicators is provided in appendix A.

 

 

Standard C-1:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of how scientific inquiry and technological design, including mathematical analysis, can be used appropriately to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

Indicators

 

C-1.1    Apply established rules for significant digits, both in reading a scientific instrument and in calculating a derived quantity from measurement.

C-1.2    Use appropriate laboratory apparatuses, technology, and techniques safely and accurately when conducting a scientific investigation.

C-1.3    Use scientific instruments to record measurement data in appropriate metric units that reflect the precision and accuracy of each particular instrument.

C-1.4    Design a scientific investigation with appropriate methods of control to test a hypothesis (including independent and dependent variables), and evaluate the designs of sample investigations.

C-1.5    Organize and interpret the data from a controlled scientific investigation by using mathematics (including formulas, scientific notation, and dimensional analysis), graphs, models, and/or technology.

C-1.6    Evaluate the results of a scientific investigation in terms of whether they verify or refute the hypothesis and what the possible sources of error are.

C-1.7    Evaluate a technological design or product on the basis of designated criteria.

C-1.8    Use appropriate safety procedures when conducting investigations.

 

Standard C-2:   Students will demonstrate an understanding of atomic structure and nuclear processes.

Indicators

 

C-2.1   Illustrate electron configurations by using orbital notation for representative elements.

C-2.2   Summarize atomic properties (including electron configuration, ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic size, and ionic size).

C-2.3   Summarize the periodic table’s property trends (including electron configuration, ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic size, ionic size, and reactivity).

C-2.4   Compare the nuclear reactions of fission and fusion to chemical reactions (including the parts of the atom involved and the relative amounts of energy released).

C-2.5   Compare alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of mass, charge, penetrating power, and the release of these particles from the nucleus.

C-2.6   Explain the concept of half-life, its use in determining the age of materials, and its significance to nuclear waste disposal.

 

The following indicators should be selected as appropriate to a particular course for additional content and depth:

 

C-2.7   Apply the predictable rate of nuclear decay (half-life) to determine the age of materials.

C-2.8   Analyze a decay series chart to determine the products of successive nuclear reactions and write nuclear equations for disintegration of specified nuclides.

C-2.9   Use the equation E = mc2 to determine the amount of energy released during nuclear reactions.

 

Standard C-3:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and classifications of chemical compounds.

Indicators

 

C-3.1    Predict the type of bonding (ionic or covalent) and the shape of simple compounds by using Lewis dot structures and oxidation numbers.

C-3.2    Interpret the names and formulas for ionic and covalent compounds.

C-3.3    Explain how the types of intermolecular forces present in a compound affect the physical properties of compounds (including polarity and molecular shape).

C-3.4    Explain the unique bonding characteristics of carbon that have resulted in the formation of a large variety of organic structures.

C-3.5    Illustrate the structural formulas and names of simple hydrocarbons (including alkanes and their isomers and benzene rings).

 

The following indicators should be selected as appropriate to a particular course for additional content and depth:

 

C-3.6      Identify the basic structure of common polymers (including proteins, nucleic acids, plastics, and starches).

C-3.7      Classify organic compounds in terms of their functional group.

C-3.8      Explain the effect of electronegativity and ionization energy on the type of bonding in a molecule.

C-3.9      Classify polymerization reactions as addition or condensation.

C-3.10    Classify organic reactions as addition, elimination, or condensation.

 

Standard C-4:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of the types, the causes, and the effects of chemical reactions.

Indicators

 

C-4.1    Analyze and balance equations for simple synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, and combustion reactions.

C-4.2    Predict the products of acid-base neutralization and combustion reactions.

C-4.3    Analyze the energy changes (endothermic or exothermic) associated with chemical reactions.

C-4.4    Apply the concept of moles to determine the number of particles of a substance in a chemical reaction, the percent composition of a representative compound, the mass proportions, and the mole-mass relationships.

C-4.5    Predict the percent yield, the mass of excess, and the limiting reagent in chemical reactions.

C-4.6    Explain the role of activation energy and the effects of temperature, particle size, stirring, concentration, and catalysts in reaction rates.

 

The following indicators should be selected as appropriate to a particular course for additional content and depth:

 

C-4.7    Summarize the oxidation and reduction processes (including oxidizing and reducing agents).

C-4.8    Illustrate the uses of electrochemistry (including electrolytic cells, voltaic cells, and the production of metals from ore by electrolysis).

C-4.9    Summarize the concept of chemical equilibrium and Le Châtelier’s principle.

C-4.10  Explain the role of collision frequency, the energy of collisions, and the orientation of molecules in reaction rates.

 

Standard C-5:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and behavior of the different phases of matter.

Indicators

 

C-5.1   Explain the effects of the intermolecular forces on the different phases of matter.

C-5.2   Explain the behaviors of gas; the relationship among pressure, volume, and temperature; and the significance of the Kelvin (absolute temperature) scale, using the kinetic-molecular theory as a model.

C-5.3   Apply the gas laws to problems concerning changes in pressure, volume, or temperature (including Charles’s law, Boyle’s law, and the combined gas law).

C-5.4   Illustrate and interpret heating and cooling curves (including how boiling and melting points can be identified and how boiling points vary with changes in pressure).

 

The following indicators should be selected as appropriate to a particular course for additional content and depth:

 

C-5.5   Analyze the energy changes involved in calorimetry by using the law of conservation of energy as it applies to temperature, heat, and phase changes (including the use of the formulas q = mcΔT [temperature change] and q = mLv and q = mLf [phase change] to solve calorimetry problems).

C-5.6   Use density to determine the mass, volume, or number of particles of a gas in a chemical reaction.

C-5.7   Apply the ideal gas law (pV = nRT) to solve problems.

C-5.8   Analyze a product for purity by following the appropriate assay procedures.

C-5.9   Analyze a chemical process to account for the weight of all reagents and solvents by following the appropriate material balance procedures.

 

Standard C-6:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature and properties of various types of chemical solutions.

Indicators

 

C-6.1    Summarize the process by which solutes dissolve in solvents, the dynamic equilibrium that occurs in saturated solutions, and the effects of varying pressure and temperature on solubility.

C-6.2    Compare solubility of various substances in different solvents (including polar and nonpolar solvents and organic and inorganic substances).

C-6.3    Illustrate the colligative properties of solutions (including freezing point depression and boiling point elevation and their practical uses).

C-6.4    Carry out calculations to find the concentration of solutions in terms of molarity and percent weight (mass).

C-6.5    Summarize the properties of salts, acids, and bases.

C-6.6    Distinguish between strong and weak common acids and bases.

C-6.7    Represent common acids and bases by their names and formulas.

 

The following indicators should be selected as appropriate to a particular course for additional content and depth:

 

C-6.8      Use the hydronium or hydroxide ion concentration to determine the pH and pOH of aqueous solutions.

C-6.9      Explain how the use of a titration can determine the concentration of acid and base solutions

C-6.10    Interpret solubility curves to determine saturation at different temperatures.

C-6.11    Use a variety of procedures for separating mixtures (including distillation, crystallization filtration, paper chromatography, and centrifuge).

C-6.12    Use solubility rules to write net ionic equations for precipitation reactions in aqueous solution.

C-6.13    Use the calculated molality of a solution to calculate the freezing point depression and the boiling point elevation of a solution.

C-6.14    Represent neutralization reactions and reactions between common acids and metals by using chemical equations.

C-6.15    Analyze the composition of a chemical sample by using gas chromatography.

 

 

 

Physics

Overview

The standards for physics establish the scientific inquiry skills and core content for all physics courses in South Carolina schools. In these courses, students acquire a fundamental knowledge of motion, matter, and energy that should not only serve them as the foundation for their study of science in institutions of higher education but should also provide them with the science skills that are necessary in physics-oriented technical careers. A total of seven high school core area standards for physics must be taught: the required standards for physics are standards 1 through 5; any two of standards 6 through 10 are required in addition. The decision about which two of standards 6 through 10 to address in any particular physics course should be based on the objectives for that course.

 

In order for students to achieve these goals, physics courses must include inquiry-based instruction, allowing students to engage in problem solving, decision making, critical thinking, and applied learning. Teachers, schools, and districts should therefore use these standards to make decisions concerning the structure and content of all their courses in physics and to make choices regarding additional content, activities, and learning strategies that will be determined by the objectives of the particular courses.

 

All physics courses are laboratory courses (minimum of 30 percent hands-on investigation). Physics laboratories will need to be stocked with all of the materials and apparatuses necessary to complete investigations.

 

The skills and tools listed in the scientific inquiry sections have been assessed on statewide tests independently from the content knowledge in the respective grade or high school core area under which they are listed. Moreover, scientific inquiry standards and indicators have been assessed cumulatively. Therefore, as students progress through this course, they are expected to know the content of the scientific inquiry indicators—including the use of tools—from all their previous grades and science courses. A table of the scientific inquiry standards and indicators for kindergarten through grade twelve is provided in appendix A, which teachers are urged to print out and keep as a ready reference.

 

Scientific Inquiry

 

The skills of scientific inquiry, including a knowledge of the use of tools, will be assessed cumulatively on statewide tests. Students will therefore be responsible for the scientific inquiry indicators from all of their earlier grade levels. A table of the K–12 scientific inquiry standards and indicators is provided in appendix A.

 

 

Standard P-1:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of how scientific inquiry and technological design, including mathematical analysis, can be used appropriately to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

Indicators

 

P-1.1    Apply established rules for significant digits, both in reading scientific instruments and in calculating derived quantities from measurement.

P-1.2    Use appropriate laboratory apparatuses, technology, and techniques safely and accurately when conducting a scientific investigation.

P-1.3    Use scientific instruments to record measurement data in appropriate metric units that reflect the precision and accuracy of each particular instrument.

P-1.4    Design a scientific investigation with appropriate methods of control to test a hypothesis (including independent and dependent variables), and evaluate the designs of sample investigations.

P-1.5    Organize and interpret the data from a controlled scientific investigation by using (including calculations in scientific notation, formulas, and dimensional analysis), graphs, tables, models, diagrams, and/or technology.

P-1.6    Evaluate the results of a controlled scientific investigation in terms of whether they refute or verify the hypothesis.

P-1.7    Evaluate conclusions based on qualitative and quantitative data (including the impact of parallax, instrument malfunction, or human error) on experimental results.

P-1.8    Evaluate a technological design or product on the basis of designated criteria (including cost, time, and materials).

P-1.9    Communicate and defend a scientific argument or conclusion.

P-1.10  Use appropriate safety procedures when conducting investigations.

 

Standard P-2:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of the principles of force and motion and relationships between them.

Indicators

 

P-2.1    Represent vector quantities (including displacement, velocity, acceleration, and force) and use vector addition.

P-2.2    Apply formulas for velocity or speed and acceleration to one and two-dimensional problems.

P-2.3    Interpret the velocity or speed and acceleration of one and two-dimensional motion on distance-time, velocity-time or speed-time, and acceleration-time graphs.

P-2.4    Interpret the resulting motion of objects by applying Newton’s three laws of motion: inertia; the relationship among net force, mass, and acceleration (using F = ma); and action and reaction forces.

P-2.5    Explain the factors that influence the dynamics of falling objects and projectiles.

P-2.6    Apply formulas for velocity and acceleration to solve problems related to projectile motion.

P-2.7    Use a free-body diagram to determine the net force and component forces acting upon an object.

P-2.8    Distinguish between static and kinetic friction and the factors that affect the motion of objects.

P-2.9    Explain how torque is affected by the magnitude, direction, and point of application of force.

P-2.10  Explain the relationships among speed, velocity, acceleration, and force in rotational systems.

 

Standard P-3:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conservation, transfer, and transformation of mechanical energy.

Indicators

 

P-3.1    Apply energy formulas to determine potential and kinetic energy and explain the transformation from one to the other.

P-3.2    Apply the law of conservation of energy to the transfer of mechanical energy through work.

P-3.3    Explain, both conceptually and quantitatively, how energy can transfer from one system to another (including work, power, and efficiency).

P-3.4    Explain, both conceptually and quantitatively, the factors that influence periodic motion.

P-3.5    Explain the factors involved in producing a change in momentum (including impulse and the law of conservation of momentum in both linear and rotary systems).

P-3.6    Compare elastic and inelastic collisions in terms of conservation laws.

 

 

Standard P-4:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of the properties of electricity and magnetism and the relationships between them.

Indicators

 

P-4.1    Recognize the characteristics of static charge and explain how a static charge is generated.

P-4.2    Use diagrams to illustrate an electric field (including point charges and electric field lines).

P-4.3    Summarize current, potential difference, and resistance in terms of electrons.

P-4.4    Compare how current, voltage, and resistance are measured in a series and in a parallel electric circuit and identify the appropriate units of measurement.

P-4.5    Analyze the relationships among voltage, resistance, and current in a complex circuit by using Ohm’s law to calculate voltage, resistance, and current at each resistor, any branch, and the overall circuit.

P-4.6    Differentiate between alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) in electrical circuits.

P-4.7    Carry out calculations for electric power and electric energy for circuits.

P-4.8    Summarize the function of electrical safety components (including fuses, surge protectors, and breakers).

P-4.9    Explain the effects of magnetic forces on the production of electrical currents and on current carrying wires and moving charges.

P-4.10  Distinguish between the function of motors and generators on the basis of the use of electricity and magnetism by each.

P-4.11  Predict the cost of operating an electrical device by determining the amount of electrical power and electrical energy in the circuit.

 

Standard P-5:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of the properties and behaviors of mechanical and electromagnetic waves.

Indicators

 

P-5.1    Analyze the relationships among the properties of waves (including energy, frequency, amplitude, wavelength, period, phase, and speed).

P-5.2    Compare the properties of electromagnetic and mechanical waves.

P-5.3    Analyze wave behaviors (including reflection, refraction, diffraction, and constructive and destructive interference).

P-5.4    Distinguish the different properties of waves across the range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

P-5.5    Illustrate the interaction of light waves with optical lenses and mirrors by using Snell’s law and ray diagrams.

P-5.6    Summarize the operation of lasers and compare them to incandescent light.

 

 

Two of physics standards 6 through 10 must be taught in addition to standards 1 through 5.

 

Standard P-6:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of the properties and behaviors of sound.

Indicators

 

P-6.1    Summarize the production of sound and its speed and transmission through various media.

P-6.2    Explain how frequency and intensity affect the parts of the sonic spectrum.

P-6.3    Explain pitch, loudness, and tonal quality in terms of wave characteristics that determine what is heard.

P-6.4    Compare intensity and loudness.

P-6.5    Apply formulas to determine the relative intensity of sound.

P-6.6    Apply formulas in order to solve for resonant wavelengths in problems involving open and closed tubes.

P-6.7    Explain the relationship among frequency, fundamental tones, and harmonics in producing music.

P-6.8    Explain how musical instruments produce resonance and standing waves.

P-6.9    Explain how the variables of length, width, tension, and density affect the resonant frequency, harmonics, and pitch of a vibrating string.

 

 

Two of physics standards 6 through 10 must be taught in addition to standards 1 through 5.

 

 

Standard P-7:    The student will demonstrate an understanding of the properties and behaviors of light and optics.

Indicators

 

P-7.1    Explain the particulate nature of light as evidenced in the photoelectric effect.

P-7.2    Use the inverse square law to determine the change in intensity of light with distance.

P-7.3    Illustrate the polarization of light.

P-7.4    Summarize the operation of fiber optics in terms of total internal reflection.

P-7.5    Summarize image formation in microscopes and telescopes (including reflecting and refracting).  

P-7.6    Summarize the production of continuous, emission, or absorption spectra.

P-7.7    Compare color by transmission to color by reflection.

P-7.8    Compare color mixing in pigments to color mixing in light.

P-7.9    Illustrate the diffraction and interference of light.

P-7.10  Identify the parts of the eye and explain their function in image formation.

 

 

Two of physics standards 6 through 10 must be taught in addition to standards 1 through 5.

 

Standard P-8: The student will demonstrate an understanding of nuclear physics and modern physics.

Indicators

 

P-8.1    Compare the strong and weak nuclear forces in terms of their roles in radioactivity.

P-8.2    Compare the nuclear binding energy to the energy released during a nuclear reaction, given the atomic masses of the constituent particles.

P-8.3    Predict the resulting isotope of a given alpha, beta, or gamma emission.

P-8.4    Apply appropriate procedures to balance nuclear equations (including fusion, fission, alpha decay, beta decay, and electron capture).

P-8.5    Interpret a representative nuclear decay series.

P-8.6    Explain the relationship between mass and energy that is represented in the equation E = mc2 according to Einstein’s special theory of relativity.

P-8.7    Compare the value of time, length, and momentum in the reference frame of an object moving at relativistic velocity to those values measured in the reference frame of an observer by applying Einstein’s special theory of relativity.

 

 

Two of physics standards 6 through 10 must be taught in addition to standards 1 through 5.

 

Standard P-9:   The student will demonstrate an understanding of the principles of fluid mechanics.

Indicators

 

P-9.1    Predict the behavior of fluids (including changing forces) in pneumatic and hydraulic systems.

P-9.2    Apply appropriate procedures to solve problems involving pressure, force, volume, and area.

P-9.3    Explain the factors that affect buoyancy.

P-9.4    Explain how the rate of flow of a fluid is affected by the size of the pipe, friction, and the viscosity of the fluid.

P-9.5    Explain how depth and fluid density affect pressure.

P-9.6    Apply fluid formulas to solve problems involving work and power.

P-9.7    Exemplify the relationship between velocity and pressure by using Bernoulli’s principle.

 

 

Two of physics standards 6 through 10 must be taught in addition to standards 1 through 5.

 

Standard P-10:  The student will demonstrate an understanding of the principles of thermodynamics.

Indicators

 

P-10.1     Summarize the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

P-10.2     Explain the relationship among internal energy, heat, and work.

P-10.3     Exemplify the concept of entropy.

P-10.4     Explain thermal expansion in solids, liquids, and gases in terms of kinetic theory and the unique behavior of water.

P-10.5     Differentiate heat and temperature in terms of molecular motion.

P-10.6     Summarize the concepts involved in phase change.

P-10.7     Apply the concepts of heat capacity, specific heat, and heat exchange to solve calorimetry problems.

P-10.8     Summarize the functioning of heat transfer mechanisms (including engines and refrigeration systems).

 

 

 

Earth Science

Overview

The standards for earth science establish the scientific inquiry skills and core content for all earth science courses in South Carolina schools. Earth science courses should provide students with a basic knowledge of the natural world that will serve as the foundation for more advanced secondary and postsecondary courses and will also give them the science skills necessary for earth-science oriented technical careers.

 

In order for students to achieve these goals, earth science courses must include inquiry-based instruction, allowing students to engage in problem solving, decision making, critical thinking, and applied learning. Teachers, schools, and districts should use the academic standards for earth science to make decisions concerning the structure and content of all their earth science courses and to determine how these courses may go beyond the standards. These decisions will involve choices regarding additional content, activities, and learning strategies and will depend on the objectives of the individual courses.

 

All earth science courses are laboratory courses (minimum of 30 percent hands-on investigation). Earth science laboratories will need to be stocked with all of the materials and apparatuses necessary to complete investigations.

 

The skills and tools listed in the scientific inquiry sections have been assessed on statewide tests independently from the content knowledge in the respective grade or high school core area under which they are listed. Moreover, scientific inquiry standards and indicators have been assessed cumulatively. Therefore, as students progress through this course, they are expected to know the content of the scientific inquiry indicators—including the use of tools—from all their previous grades and science courses. A table of the scientific inquiry standards and indicators for kindergarten through grade twelve is provided in appendix A, which teachers are urged to print out and keep as a ready reference.

 

Scientific Inquiry

 

The skills of scientific inquiry, including a knowledge of the use of tools, will be assessed cumulatively on statewide tests. Students will therefore be responsible for the scientific inquiry indicators from all of their earlier grade levels. A table of the K–12 scientific inquiry standards and indicators is provided in appendix A.

 

Standard ES-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how scientific inquiry and technological design, including mathematical analysis, can be used appropriately to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

Indicators

 

ES-1.1    Apply established rules for significant digits, both in reading scientific instruments and in calculating derived quantities from measurement.

ES-1.2    Use appropriate laboratory apparatuses, technology, and techniques safely and accurately when conducting a scientific investigation.

ES-1.3    Use scientific instruments to record measurement data in appropriate metric units that reflect the precision and accuracy of each particular instrument.

ES-1.4    Design a scientific investigation with appropriate methods of control to test a hypothesis (including independent and dependent variables), and evaluate the designs of sample investigations.

ES-1.5    Organize and interpret the data from a controlled scientific investigation by using mathematics (including calculations in scientific notation, formulas, and dimensional analysis), graphs, tables, models, diagrams, and/or technology.

ES-1.6    Evaluate the results of a controlled scientific investigation in terms of whether they refute or verify the hypothesis.

ES-1.7    Evaluate conclusions based on qualitative and quantitative data (including the impact of parallax, instrument malfunction, or human error) on experimental results.

ES-1.8    Evaluate a technological design or product on the basis of designated criteria (including cost, time, and materials).

ES-1.9    Communicate and defend a scientific argument or conclusion.

ES-1.10  Use appropriate safety procedures when conducting investigations.

 

Astronomy

 

Standard ES-2: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and properties of the universe.

Indicators

 

ES-2.1    Summarize the properties of the solar system that support the theory of its formation along with the planets.

ES-2.2    Identify properties and features of the Moon that make it unique among other moons in the solar system.

ES-2.3    Summarize the evidence that supports the big bang theory and the expansion of the universe (including the red shift of light from distant galaxies and the cosmic background radiation).

ES-2.4    Explain the formation of elements that results from nuclear fusion occurring within stars or supernova explosions.

ES-2.5    Classify stars by using the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

ES-2.6    Compare the information obtained through the use of x-ray, radio, and visual (reflecting and refracting) telescopes.

ES-2.7    Summarize the life cycles of stars.

ES-2.8    Explain how gravity and motion affect the formation and shapes of galaxies (including the Milky Way).

ES-2.9    Explain how technology and computer modeling have increased our understanding of the universe.

 

Solid Earth

 

Standard ES-3:  Students will demonstrate an understanding of the internal and external dynamics of solid Earth.

Indicators

 

ES-3.1    Summarize theories and evidence of the origin and formation of Earth’s systems by using the concepts of gravitational force and heat production.

ES-3.2    Explain the differentiation of the structure of Earth’s layers into a core, mantle, and crust based on the production of internal heat from the decay of isotopes and the role of gravitational energy.

ES-3.3    Summarize theory of plate tectonics (including the role of convection currents, the action at plate boundaries, and the scientific evidence for the theory).

ES-3.4    Explain how forces due to plate tectonics cause crustal changes as evidenced in earthquake activity, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building.

ES-3.5    Analyze surface features of Earth in order to identify geologic processes (including weathering, erosion, deposition, and glaciation) that are likely to have been responsible for their formation.

ES-3.6    Explain how the dynamic nature of the rock cycle accounts for the interrelationships among igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

ES-3.7    Classify minerals and rocks on the basis of their physical and chemical properties and the environment in which they were formed.

ES-3.8    Summarize the formation of ores and fossil fuels and the impact on the environment that the use of these fuels has had.

 

Earth’s Atmosphere

 

Standard ES-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the dynamics of Earth’s atmosphere.

Indicators

 

ES-4.1    Summarize the thermal structures, the gaseous composition, and the location of the layers of Earth’s atmosphere.

ES-4.2    Summarize the changes in Earth’s atmosphere over geologic time (including the importance of photosynthesizing organisms to the atmosphere).

ES-4.3    Summarize the cause and effects of convection within Earth’s atmosphere.

ES-4.4    Attribute global climate patterns to geographic influences (including latitude, topography, elevation, and proximity to water).

ES-4.5    Explain the relationship between the rotation of Earth and the pattern of wind belts.

ES-4.6    Summarize possible causes of and evidence for past and present global climate changes.

ES-4.7    Summarize the evidence for the likely impact of human activities on the atmosphere (including ozone holes, greenhouse gases, acid rain, and photochemical smog).

ES-4.8    Predict weather conditions and storms (including thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tornados) on the basis of the relationship among the movement of air masses, high and low pressure systems, and frontal boundaries.

 

Earth’s Hydrosphere

 

Standard ES-5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of Earth’s freshwater and ocean systems.

Indicators

 

ES-5.1    Summarize the location, movement, and energy transfers involved in the movement of water on Earth’s surface (including lakes, surface-water drainage basins [watersheds], freshwater wetlands, and groundwater zones).

ES-5.2    Illustrate the characteristics of the succession of river systems.

ES-5.3    Explain how karst topography develops as a result of groundwater processes.

ES-5.4    Compare the physical and chemical properties of seawater and freshwater.

ES-5.5    Explain the results of the interaction of the shore with waves and currents.

ES-5.6    Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of devices used to control and prevent coastal erosion and flooding.

ES-5.7    Explain the effects of the transfer of solar energy and geothermal energy on the oceans of Earth (including the circulation of ocean currents and chemosynthesis).

ES-5.8    Analyze environments to determine possible sources of water pollution (including industrial waste, agriculture, domestic waste, and transportation devices).

 

The Paleobiosphere

 

Standard ES-6:  Students will demonstrate an understanding of the dynamic relationship between Earth’s conditions over geologic time and the diversity of its organisms.

Indicators

 

ES-6.1    Summarize the conditions of Earth that enable the planet to support life.

ES-6.2    Recall the divisions of the geologic time scale and illustrate the changes (in complexity and/or diversity) of organisms that have existed across these time units.

ES-6.3    Summarize how fossil evidence reflects the changes in environmental conditions on Earth over time.

ES-6.4    Match dating methods (including index fossils, ordering of rock layers, and radiometric dating) with the most appropriate application for estimating geologic time.

ES-6.5    Infer explanations concerning the age of the universe and the age of Earth on the basis of scientific evidence.